The process of obtaining candidates according to the needs of the organization is called hiring (Ahmad Azmy, 2018). Human resource management must organize a mechanism or system whereby the company can hire desired candidates for the success of the business.
Mathis and Jackson (2010) argue that hiring is the process of generating a pool of qualified applicants to perform an organization's work. Hiring is an early process in which the organization must be able to formulate human resource requirements including qualifications and competency needs.
There has been a significant amount of research examining what skills and qualities employers value most in job applicants. Qualifications, work experience and communication or interpersonal skills are the most frequently identified qualities. Work experience and qualifications are measures of competence concerning an applicant’s technical skills, whereas the concept of communication skills appears to be a generic term incorporating many different specific skills.
To manage a diverse workforce effectively, an organization must hire and promote the most capable candidate for a job, while being mindful of the necessity to build a workforce that is representative of the greater business community. This may be achieved by using more appropriate and inclusive recruitment and selection strategies. (Kelly, 2006).
The more effectively organizations recruit and select candidates, the more likely they are to hire and retain satisfied employees. Also, the effectiveness of an organization’s selection system can influence bottom-line business outcomes, such as productivity and financial performance. Therefore, investing in the development of a comprehensive and valid selection system is money well spent.
Sources for Recruitment
Organizations select the recruitment approach based on the nature of the job, company reputation, availability of personnel in the recruitment group and the recruitment budget (Sinha & Thaly, 2013). To execute recruitment strategies successfully, organizations may use two or more recruitment methods
Formal sources of recruitment like job advertisement in newspapers and posters are less beneficial than informal sources such as walk-ins, internal job posting, employee referrals and rehiring previous employees because these sources deliver correct and comprehensive information about candidates’ knowledge and competencies (Zottoli & Wanous, 2001).
E-recruitment in recruitment and selection function has become prevalent. As per Wolmer (2012), a survey conducted by the Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM), states that a large number of companies make use of social networking sites, such as Facebook for recruiting and contacting potential applicants.
One of the disadvantages of using social sites for the recruitment and selection process., according to Penttila (2009), is candidates may enter fake details and information to get the job.
However, for hiring managers and even for candidates, social media has now become a real-time search engine because it is cost and time-saving as well. The significant feature for hiring through social media is that you can get all the information required on the candidate through his/her website profile. Websites are also low cost or free to join.
Hunt (2010) discussed a Career Builder survey that found an increase in employer usage of social media for recruitment purposes. Within these results, 35% of employers reported using social media to promote their organization, 21% to recruit or research potential employees, and 18% to increase their company brand. He pointed out that candidates in today’s market expected their employers of choice to be online.
Selection methods include application forms, assessment centres, work sampling test, aptitude or work-ability test, mental ability test, face to face individual or panel interview, medical examination and reference checks.
The interview is the most common selection method because of its easy execution, quick outcome and cost-effectiveness (Moscoso, 2000). Evaluation of applicants’ employment record or resumes, written application and reference checks are also widely used selection tools (Zottoli & Wanous 2001).
The uses of selection strategies may differ based on the types of jobs. For example, bank employees should be selected through personality tests for assessing candidates’ traits of diligence, sociability, sensitivity, eagerness to learn, self-confidence, compassion, self-efficacy etc. to ensure better customer service (Vencatachellum & Mathuvirin, 2010).
Focusing on the Job Requirements
A glance at any online job board will attest to the importance organizations place on work experience when recruiting and selecting job applicants. Research suggests that experience is one of the most widely used methods by which organizations assess job applicants (e.g., Wilk & Cappelli, 2003).
Van Iddekinge et al. (2019) reviewed 115 monster.com job ads and found that 82% of jobs either required or preferred experience. Even jobs that were described as “entry-level” often required experience.
Creating a hiring strategy
Equality of opportunity must exist in the implementation of corporate recruitment. Recruitment should be done in a way that all candidate have the same opportunity. Stoilkovska, Ilieva, and Gjakovski (2015) explain that recruitment implementation should view the understanding of gender equality, race, religion, and avoid discrimination.
The right recruitment pattern will be in line with the company's expectations. Human resources are an important factor in achieving a company’s business targets. The competitiveness of an organization will be enhanced through appropriate recruitment patterns.
Li (2015) explains that in Nestle, planning employee recruitment starts from the job analysis process, job description, and revision of job design. These three processes will result in a new standard procedure for the type of work the candidate will undertake in the recruitment process.
After going through all three stages of this process, Nestle will decide which recruitment source will be used to fill the job position. Recruitment resources can be done internally and externally. The recruitment process is done online and builds cooperation with several leading universities to obtain high-quality human resources. Nestle's recruitment process has been linked to recruitment theories and has a positive impact on the company's business performance.
Low (2013) explains that recruitment must be able to improve the competitiveness of the organization. Recruitment practices that are already undertaken in the Eastern Cape (Soth Africa) prioritize access to information and ease of candidates in obtaining job vacancy information.
The current era of recruitment can be done with social media. The use of social media such as Facebook, Linkedin, and some other social media can be used effectively in the process of human resource recruitment.
Melanthiou, Pavlou, and Constantinou (2014) found that social media-based recruitment has many advantages for a company. The company can provide broad access to information for applicant candidates to find job vacancy information. A good corporate reputation will have a positive impact on job applicant screening through social media.
The purpose of the recruitment strategy is to formulate and determine the sources, methods, and stages of recruitment. The process of determining recruitment strategy depends on various aspects ranging from source for recruitment, whether the job requires experience and selection methods suitable for each company.
However, social media platforms are mostly being used as a source for hiring. More so, most employers assess the experience of the applicants in the process of hiring. In a nutshell, the hiring of workers differs from one organisation to another and as a result, strategies used by different companies vary in terms of both their use and effectiveness in the hiring process.
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Munodiwa Zvemhara is a consultant at Industrial Psychology Consultants (Pvt) Ltd a management and human resources consulting firm.
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