FMLA Leave: A Complete Guide

FMLA Leave: A Complete Guide

Federal legislation known as the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) was passed in 1993 and revised in 2008 and 2009. The FMLA's overarching goal is to require select major businesses to strike a balance between the demands of the workplace and those of families by granting eligible workers job-protected, unpaid leave. The FMLA was expanded to cover specific circumstances relating to the military by the amendments of 2008 and 2009. The modifications offer leave for families of covered military members and for qualifying military exigencies.

Employees are permitted to take reasonable unpaid absences for specific family and medical reasons under the FMLA, which is intended to assist people in managing their work and family obligations. It also aims to advance equal employment opportunities for men and women and satisfy the legal interests of employers.

The FMLA covers all government organizations, all public and private elementary and secondary schools, and businesses. These employers are required to offer a qualified worker up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave annually for any of the reasons listed below:

  • for the birth and upbringing of an employee's newborn child;
  • for the adoption or foster care of a child placed with the employee;
  • for the care of a member of the employee's immediate family (such as a spouse, kid, or parent) who has a significant medical condition; or
  • to request medical leave if an employee has a serious health condition that prevents them from working.

Related: How to Apply for FMLA

What Are the Rules Around FMLA?

If an employee has worked for their employer for at least a year, put in at least 1,250 hours in the past year, and works in a location where the business employs 50 or more people within 75 miles, they are eligible for leave. The FLSA's guidelines for calculating compensable work hours are used to evaluate whether an employee has accrued the required 1,250 hours of service.

Due to pregnancy difficulties, the twelve weeks of family and medical leave may be reduced by any time missed.

The FMLA now offers safeguards for military families tailored to their requirements thanks to the 2008 addition of military family leave provisions.

Employees of local educational organizations are subject to special regulations. The U.S. Department of Labor administers the FMLA, but for most federal employees, it is handled by the Office of Personnel Management.

Related: FMLA Leave in California

FMLA Guidelines for Employers


The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) is widely known to most American companies. Although they may be aware that certain employees are entitled to up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave for family and medical reasons under federal law, they might not fully comprehend how this very complex rule is implemented in the workplace daily.

The good news is that this employer's guide to the FMLA will go through much of the essential information companies need to know about FMLA leave.

FMLA a complete guide

1. Only "covered" employers are covered by the FMLA

Who is a "covered" employer under the FMLA? Since the FMLA won't be applicable if the employee doesn't work for a covered employer, you might wish to address this concern first.

Common examples of covered employers are:

  • Governmental organizations, such as the federal or state governments
  • employers in the private sector who employ at least 50 people
  • either public or private elementary and secondary institutions

It's also important to remember that, in most cases, covered businesses must place a general FMLA notification where employees may see it. The notice should explain the FMLA and include details on how it operates, including how to file a complaint with the Department of Labor's Wage and Hour Division and the proper channels to use. The employer must also provide written notification to any employee who qualifies for the FMLA.

Related: Paid Sick Leave: Global Trends to Take Note

2. Who is an employee who qualifies for the FMLA?

Even while FMLA regulations stipulate that you are a covered employer, the employee who requests leave must still meet certain eligibility conditions.

For instance, qualified employees often need to: In addition to working for a covered employer:

  • Work for the employer for at least 12 consecutive months, although not necessarily in that order.
  • Work for the company for at least 1,250 hours in the 12 months before the requested absence.
  • Work within 75 miles of a location that employs at least 50 people.

Even though the employee satisfies these conditions, the situation is not yet over. Indeed, you will still need to decide if the employee has an FMLA-qualifying reason for leave.

3. Qualifying reasons for leave under the FMLA



A qualified employee is not permitted to use FMLA leave for personal reasons, such as fatigue or the need for a break. An employee may be eligible to use the FMLA to take an unpaid leave of absence in certain circumstances.

Employees who work for covered employers may be qualified for up to 12 workweeks of unpaid, job-protected leave within 12 months for any of the following reasons, provided they have satisfied the FMLA's eligibility standards.

These are just a few serious mental or physical health conditions that may qualify for FMLA leave.

4. Employee's obligations, including notifications

Employees should typically give their employer at least 30 days' notice before taking FMLA-eligible absence. Some workers will be aware months in advance that they must take time off work for a medical operation or treatment they don't require immediately but will undergo soon. In this situation, the employer and employee can work together to schedule the employee's absence at a time that will minimize interruption to the company.

However, in other circumstances, 30 days notice is not feasible because the employee may not know their need for leave until the last minute. For instance, unexpected family problems demand family members be involved and quick medical attention and healing time. Every circumstance is unique.

5. Certificates serve as supporting documentation for FMLA leaves

An employer may ask them to submit a certification to verify an employee's need for FMLA leave. Certification is often a form that must be filled out by the employee's healthcare professional and any parent, spouse, or child of the employee. Sometimes, an employer might ask for a second or third doctor's certification or opinion.

The certification is being requested to learn more about the employee's request for FMLA leave and to confirm the anticipated duration of the employee's required absences. It may also show that the worker needs FMLA leave due to serious physical or mental health issues.

Of course, there are some exceptions. When an employee requests to use FMLA leave to spend time with a newborn kid, an adopted child, or a child they are adopting into foster care, employers frequently cannot ask for medical certification. However, employers could be entitled to ask for proof of the family connection.

If the employer asks for the initial certification, the employee must supply it. The employer has the right to refuse an employee's request for FMLA leave if the employee fails to produce the certification.

Additionally, the employer has the right to mention in writing any information absent from the medical certification and request that the employee provide a revised certification. Finally, a healthcare provider may be contacted by an employer for certification clarification or confirmation.

6. What should the medical certification contain to be deemed adequate?

Normally, the certification will only contain details on the employee's leave request justification. A suitable certification will typically contain the following details:

  • Contact details for medical professionals.
  • Relevant medical information concerning the serious illness.
  • According to the doctor, how long is the terrible health condition expected to endure?
  • When the relevant health issue first manifested.
  • Whether the worker will require intermittent or ongoing FMLA leave.
  • Whether the employee, if the patient, is the employee, and if not, how long the employee's inability to work will last.
  • Whether and how long a family member will need care if they are a patient, such as a parent, kid, or spouse of the employee.

7. Selecting an FMLA leave

It is always the employer's responsibility to designate leave as FMLA-qualifying leave and to notify the employee of the designation. The designation notification informs the employee who requested FMLA leave that their request has been granted and outlines any conditions they must adhere to while on leave.

The employer is required to inform an employee in writing if they are not eligible for FMLA leave. It can be as simple as a formal declaration that the FMLA would not cover the leave.

Within a 12-month leave year, only one designation notice is necessary for each FMLA-qualifying reason for leave, whether the leave is taken continuously, intermittently, or on a restricted schedule. Employees' FMLA rights may be denied, interfered with, or restricted if the employer fails to give them a timely designation notification.

8. Obligations of the employer during an employee's leave

Generally, covered employers must establish, preserve, and retain records for at least three years.

The following are frequently found among the documents made, preserved, and archived:

  • Employee identification details from payroll basics
  • Copies of the FMLA notice that the worker has given the employer, along with any leave requests made by the worker
  • Any employer-related paperwork about benefits, rules, or procedures governing paid or unpaid leave
  • Dates that the employee took their FMLA absence, or if they took it in smaller chunks than a day, the number of hours that they took their leave.
  • Documents relating to any disagreements between the employer and employee regarding FMLA leave

An employee's return to work after a leave of absence may, under certain conditions, be contingent upon the employee providing certification of fitness for duty. Only the health issue that necessitated the employee's FMLA absence may be the subject of an employer's request for a fitness for duty certification. The employer must provide an essential work function list for the employee's certified healthcare professional to review if this is a requirement.

The employer may refuse to permit an employee to resume employment until they receive a copy of the fitness for duty certification; it is the employee's responsibility to obtain a fitness for duty certification.

Related: 11 Reasons Why Employees Fake Sick Leave


Many conditions must be met to comply with the FMLA. Employers must ensure managers and supervisors are trained in following the law and identifying a request for leave that qualifies under the FMLA.

Milton Jack is a Business Consultant at Industrial Psychology Consultants (Pvt) Ltd, a business management and human resources consulting firm.


Phone: +263 242 481946-48/481950

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Milton Jack
This article was written by Milton a Consultant at Industrial Psychology Consultants (Pvt) Ltd

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