Change is often necessary and essential so that organizations remain relevant. While an organizations executives may recognize the need for change, employees may be resistant since change can be hard and uncomfortable (Pearson 2021). Change is a complex and difficult process, but inevitable. The most commonly cited reason for project failure is problems with the people side of change. Yet organizations often invest more in the technical side of change than in leading impacted people through times of change.
Learning the different change management models teaches organizations about best practices to use in a change project. Whether you choose one model or a combination of many, they can help you build a better change management technique. In this article, we explore the different types of change management models.
What is the ADKAR Model?
Created by Jeff Hiatt, the ADKAR change model has been proven to help individuals understand and accept change so that organizations can successfully innovate and become more efficient. The ADKAR change management model is based on the analysis of hundreds of successful and unsuccessful organizational changes over many years.
The ADKAR change model is based on the following building blocks:
- Awareness- The first step to any change is generating awareness for change. Building awareness as defined within ADKAR means sharing both the nature of the change and answering why this change is necessary.
- Desire- Next, change practitioners must kindle a desire for change in employees. Ultimately, the individual must choose to support that change willingly.
- Knowledge- Unless workers have the skills, knowledge, tools, and processes to change, they will not make progress. Effective change management means acquiring the knowledge to change and the knowledge to perform after the change.
- Ability- Ability translates knowledge into action. In this stage, employees must turn their learning into practical application, via training, coaching, and support.
- Reinforcement - Finally, change must be sustained. Reinforcement is critical and can include recognition and rewards, as well as internal satisfaction.
This model was named after Kurt Lewin, a German-American psychologist who is widely regarded as a modern pioneer in the fields of social, organizational, and applied psychology. His change management model splits change into three phases as explained in the figure below;
Figure 1: Lewins Change Management Model
Phase 1: Unfreeze - The Unfreeze stage encompasses ensuring the readiness of change, by preparing the organization to understand and accept the criticality of the need for change. Four key steps describe the Unfreeze stage:
- Ascertain the need for change
- Gather support
- Develop the strategy and plan to communicate the need for change.
- Appreciate and manage any reservations and uncertainties
- Change (or Transition) Stage - When people have been unfrozen and are ready to proceed towards their ideal condition, the transition begins, which implies making the necessary adjustments. People frequently find this period challenging because they are apprehensive about the future, are unfamiliar with the changes, and require time to understand and adjust to them.
- Communicate methodically and consistently
- Encourage action
- Engage people
- Freeze (or Refreeze) Stage - When people are unfrozen and ready to move towards the desired state, the transition occurs, indicating that the necessary changes have been made. This is often a difficult time for people because they are uncertain about the future, are new to the changes, and require time to grasp and adjust to them.
What is a Nudge?
Nudge Theory is founded on the notion that by influencing the environment, also known as the decision architecture, one may affect the chance that one option will be chosen over another by humans. The capacity of an individual to preserve freedom of choice and feel in control of the decisions they make is a fundamental component in Nudge Theory.
Nudges seek to influence our decisions without taking away our ability to choose. Nudges are useful since we do not always think and act logically and deliberately, evaluating all of the costs and rewards. The vast majority of our decisions are made unknowingly and impulsively. As a result, to influence peoples behavior in a good way, we must appeal to their intuitive thinking.
Former McKinsey & Company consultants Tom Peters and Robert Waterman created the concept in the late 1970s. They identified seven internal organizational aspects that must be aligned for an organization to be effective (Mindtools 2021). The McKinsey 7-S model is excellent for determining your companys coherence. If you know you need to alter your behavior but do not know how this is the change management approach for you.
Figure 2: The Mckinsey 7-S Model
Lets look at each of the elements individually:
- Strategy - this is your organizations plan for building and maintaining a competitive advantage over its competitors.
- Structure - this is how your company is organized (how departments and teams are structured, including who reports to whom).
- Systems -the daily activities and procedures that staff use to get the job done.
- Shared Values -these are the core values of the organization and reflect its general work ethic. They were called "superordinate goals" when the model was first developed.
- Style - the style of leadership adopted.
- Staff -the employees and their general capabilities.
- Skills -the actual skills and competencies of the organizations employees.
The change management process enables practitioners inside businesses to leverage and scale change management activities that assist impacted individuals and groups in transition. Some of these include the following:
- 1. Get the organization ready for change - An organization must be prepared both logistically and culturally to successfully pursue and implement change.
- Create a vision and a change strategy - Managers must design a thorough and realistic plan for bringing about change once the organization is ready to embrace it. The strategy should include the following information:
- Put the changes into action - Following the procedures described in the plan to implement the desired change is all that remains after it has been created.
- Incorporate Changes into the Companys Culture and Practices - Change managers must prevent a reversion to the previous state or status quo once the change endeavor is concluded.
- Evaluate Progress and Analyze Outcomes - A change initiatives completion does not imply that it was successful.
Carl Tapi is a Consultant at Industrial Psychology Consultants (Pvt) Ltd, a management and human resources consulting firm. https://www.linkedin.com/in/carl-tapi-45776482/ Phone +263 (242) 481946-48/481950 or cell number +263 772 469 680 or email: firstname.lastname@example.org or visit our website at www.ipcconsultants.com