Edgar Schein (2004) describes organizational culture as the pattern of shared basic assumptions - invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration - that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel about those problems (Schein 2004, p17). Culture is built through shared learning and mutual experience.
The culture of an organization is its personality and character. Organizational culture is made up of shared values, beliefs, and assumptions about how people should behave and interact, how decisions should be made, and how work activities should be carried out. Key factors in an organizations culture include its history and environment as well as the people who lead and work for it.
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