Overview of Job Analysis
Job analysis is the process of examining a job to determine what activities and duties it entails. While human resources may gather some job analysis data from incumbents, a crucial idea in job analysis is that the work, not the person doing the job, is analyzed. According to Management Study Guide, a job analysis is systematic research, study, and documentation of a given job's responsibilities, tasks, skills, accountabilities, work environment, and ability requirements. It also entails assessing the relative relevance of a job's obligations, responsibilities, and physical and emotional abilities. These variables define what a job requires and what an individual must possess to do a job well.
The Job Analysis Concept
Job analysis is the process of gathering and evaluating information about a job in a company. It refers to a scientific and systematic examination of a job to gather all relevant information. "The process of researching and collecting information relevant to the operations and duties of a specific job," according to Edwin B. Flippo.
Job analysis and job evaluation are commonly mistaken, although they are not the same thing.
The contents provided by a Job Analysis
- Job Identification- The title of the job, as well as the code number;
- Important job characteristics- location, physical environment, supervision, union jurisdiction, risks, and discomforts;
- What a typical employee does- the specific operations and activities that make up an assignment, their relative timing and priority, their simplicity, routine, or complexity, and others' responsibility or safety for property, cash, confidence, and trust;
- The materials and tools a worker uses- such equipment can be metals, polymers, grains, yarns, milling machines, punch presses, and micrometers.
- The nature of the job – that is, how the job is performed, for example, lifting, handling, cleaning, washing, feeding, removing, drilling, driving, putting up, and a variety of other tasks;
- Required personnel qualities- Experience, training, apprenticeship, physical strength, coordination or dexterity, physical demands, mental capacities, aptitudes, and social skills
- Job relationship- Required experience, progression prospects, promotion patterns, and vital co-operation, guidance, or leadership from and for a job are all factors to consider.
Here are some examples of how a company may use job analysis data:
- Planning for the workforce.
- Management of performance.
- Selection and recruitment.
- Planning for your future career and succession.
- Development and training
- Administration of compensation.
- Employee relations
- Risk management
Related: The importance of Job Analysis
Methods of Job Analysis
Though there are numerous methods for gathering job analysis data, the decision to use one or a mix of approaches is based on the demands and requirements of the company as well as the job analysis process's goals. Typically, all approaches focus on gathering essential job-related information. Still, when used together, they can reveal hidden or ignored information and prove to be useful tools for finding the right job-candidate match.
According to the Management Study Guide, there are three common methods of job analysis.
It's not easy to figure out which duties employees undertake. When it comes to gathering information for job analysis, observation, as well as questionnaires or interviews with the most qualified incumbent(s), is the most successful method. The most prevalent job analysis methods are described here.
1. Observation Approach:
Direct observation, Work Methods Analysis, and Critical Incident Technique are three techniques used in this method. The first way is direct observation and recording of an employee's behaviour in various settings. The second is for assembly-line or manufacturing employees and incorporates the study of time and motion. The third is about finding the work behaviours that lead to success.
- Direct observation:
Direct observation is a job analysis method that involves observing and recording behaviour, events, activities, tasks, and duties while a person or group is performing the job. Only when the job analyst is competent enough to know what to watch, how to analyze, and what is being seen can the observation approach be useful
- Work Method Analysis:
Work methods analysis is a term used to describe manual and repetitive production operations like factory or assembly-line jobs. Time and motion studies, as well as micro-motion analysis, are part of the work procedures analysis.
- Critical Incident Technique
The critical incident technique is a method used to collect data using a set of procedures. The observer observes crucial human behaviours, skills employed, and occurrences on the work using the critical incident approach. In the critical incident procedure, the employee's management provides full incident details. In comparison to other approaches, which may be quite objective and just need ratings of 5/10 or less, this method is quite subjective. It aids in the definition of the competencies and Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, and Other Attributes necessary for a task or collection of tasks associated with a job. The observer considers the physical talents employed and the mental ability required by the job holder.
2. Interview Technique:
An interview method is a good tool for job analysis since it allows you to pose questions to incumbents and supervisors one-on-one or in the group. Structured interviews, unstructured interviews, and open-ended inquiries are all types of interviews. This strategy allows interviewers to learn how an employee feels about their work and the obligations that come with it. It entails the employee's job analysis. Questions answered during the interview should be carefully chosen to create honest and authentic feedback or collect accurate data. And, to avoid mistakes, it's always a good idea to interview more than one person to obtain a variety of replies. It may then be generalized and applied to the entire group.
3. Questionnaire Method:
The questionnaire method is perhaps the most commonly used job analysis method. The jobholders are given a well-designed questionnaire to elicit essential job-related information. The questionnaires are given to supervisors once they have been completed. By speaking directly with jobholders, supervisors can get more information on a variety of topics. The method's effectiveness is dependent on several factors. The structured questionnaire must cover all job-related tasks and behaviors. Each task or behavior should be classified according to its importance, complexity, frequency, and relationship to total performance. Jobholders should be asked to rate the various aspects of their jobs and convey their results on paper. The ratings thus gathered are next scrutinized to determine the real job requirements.
The data is delivered to the job analyzer once everything has been finalized. It consists of six methods, as follows:
a. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ Model):
The PAQ Model is a job analysis questionnaire approach. It is a structured job analysis instrument established by Mc Cormick, Jeanneret, and Mecham (1972) to evaluate job qualities and connect them to human traits. It is made up of 194 job parts that define common human work behaviours, and these are divided into six major divisions. The PAQ enables management to arrange interrelated job elements into job dimensions scientifically and quantitatively. These are listed below:
Employee Activities in the PAQ Model
- Information input
- Mental Process
- Physical Activities
- Relationships with others
- Job Context
- Other Job Characteristics
b. Functional Job Analysis (FJA Model):
The FJA model is a job analysis approach established by the United States Department of Labor's Employment and Training Administration. It consists of seven scales (numbers) that assess the following, three worker-function scales that determine the proportion of time spent with data, people, and objects; one worker-instruction scale; and three measures that assess reasoning, mathematics, and language.
c. Work Profiling System (WPS Model):
The WPS Model is a questionnaire approach for work analysis that was created by Saville & Holdsworth, Ltd. It is a computer-administered system for job analysis. The WPS is computer-administered on a company's premises. It includes a systematic questionnaire that assesses ability and personality traits in areas such as Hearing, Sight, Taste, Smell, Touch, Body Coordination, Verbal Skills, Number Skills, Complex Management Skills, Personality, and Team Role, among others.
d. MOSAIC Model:
The MOSAIC Model is a job analysis questionnaire approach that collects data from incumbents and supervisors. It includes 151 job activities that are prioritized for successful job performance and 22 skills that are prioritized for entry-level competency.
e. Model of the Common Metric Questionnaire (CMQ):
The CMQ model is a job analysis approach created by Harvey as a "worker-oriented" job analysis tool that may be used for a wide range of exempt and nonexempt employees. It contains 41 basic background questions, 62 questions about interactions with people, 80 questions about decision-making, 53 questions about physical and mechanical tasks, and 47 questions about work settings.
f. FJAS Model (Fleishman Job Analysis System):
The FJAS model, formerly the Manual for Ability Requirements Scales, is a job analysis approach that characterizes occupations in required capabilities. It comprises 52 cognitive, physical, psychomotor, and sensory ability categories, each of which has two parts: an operational and differential definition and a grading scale.
Therefore, mastering the fundamentals of job analysis is essential since everyone will apply the strategies outlined in this article to some extent. Having a thorough grasp of the job, whether you're a manager, HR professional, or employee, will lead to smarter and more strategic judgments on the job or about the job.
Kelin Zvomuya is a consultant at Industrial Psychology Consultants (Pvt) Ltd a management and human resources consulting firm.
Phone: +263 4 481946-48/481950/2900276/2900966
Cell number: +263 785419889
Email: [email protected]
View Kelin Zvomuya's full profile